Ecology. Donetsk has a reputation of a city of roses…
Big concentration of industrial enterprises in Donetsk and in the whole region can be easily noticed. Industrial emissions of enterprises located on the relatively small territory of the city, together with enterprises of Donetsk agglomerations (such towns as Avdeevka, Makeevka, Yasinovataya, etc.) generate rather persistent smog. It overhangs as grey-and violet haze above the whole megapolis.
Totally there are 1500 coal producing, fuel and power, chemical and metallurgical enterprises in Donetsk region. Mainly all of them are hazardous for ecology. Nearly half of the enterprises refer to the top hazard class. Only in Donetsk there are about 200 industrial enterprises. Moreover, Donetsk is a densely populated area.
As a result, burden on biosphere of the region is one of the hardest not only in Ukraine, but in the whole Europe. In accordance with different estimates, up to 40% of hazardous substances are accounted for Donetsk region. Approximately 338kg of hazardous substances are calculated for one residence of the region.
High mortality rate among residents of Donetsk region (which is considerably higher than rates in Ukraine) can be explained by such an oppressive ecological situation.
Donetsk air is polluted with dust and gaseous waste, in particular, carbon oxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ammonia, phenol, etc. More than the third part of hazardous emissions is coalmine methane. Technology for recovering coalmine methane is implemented only in one of Donetsk coalmines, in particular in Zasyadko coalmine.
One of the reasons of highly polluted air is lack of proper gas and dust separation equipment at Donetsk industrial enterprises. Financial difficulties often persuade companies to cut expenditures for environmental measures.
The main air pollutants are coalmines (there 22 of them in the city), metallurgical plants, coking plants, machine building plants and power generation stations (located in neighboring towns of Donetsk).
Besides, Donetsk is surrounded by such hard air pollutants as power generation stations; which are Starobeshevskaya PGS, Kurakhovskaya PGS and coking plants located in neighboring towns Avdeevka and Makeevka (Avdeevka Coking plant and Makeevsky Coking plant).
In the very hart of Donetsk city there is a large metallurgical plant. Blast-furnaces are still used here, which hardly pollute the air. And disposal areas for rock waste (artificial piles of waste rocks) called terricones are disseminated on the whole territory of the city. There are more than 100 terricones here. They are located close to the residential quarters. Besides the fact that terricones comprise “nearly all components of Mendeleev’s table”, some of them are still funning.
Moreover, the city is affected by heavy accumulation of automobile transports that is typical for every megapolis. Automobile exhaust gas comprises 30% of all air pollutions in Donetsk. In Ukraine this problem still remains unsolved.
Recently Donetsk has faced with a hard problem of water supply. With the industrial development this problem has become more aggravated. Natural water recourses that are in 5 or 6 times lower than on the average in Ukraine are accounted for one local resident. The main water artery of Donbass that is the Channel Seversky Donets-Donbass, has been in the state of emergency for a long time and at any moment the region is under the risk to stay with no drinking water.
Main pollutants of the water objects are mining and metallurgical enterprises. The main trouble is that mines run-offs containing a big variety of chemical elements, including mercury, flow into rivers. Frequent emergency leaks form sewage collectors and domestic garbage make irreparable harm to water reservoirs.
As a result, water in Donetsk reservoirs does not meet the required standards. The main river of the city the Kalmius needs to be cleaned and purified.
There is one more problem that is a high degree of local water mineralization. It is strongly recommended not to drink tap water. There is a risk of being infected. Moreover, water for population is still chlorinated.
On the average nearly 31 thousand tons of various types of waste and refuse are concentrated on one square meter on the territory of Donetsk region.183 tons are accounted for one resident. 70% of them is acid spoil. More than 7 thousand acres are covered with terricones.